Microcontroller-Based PID Controller Design and Simulation.

Ing. Cristoforo Baldoni

In this article, we will explore the transition from analog PID controller design for continuous-time systems to digital controllers, including PID controller simulation. This transition involves substituting operational amplifiers, resistors, and capacitors with microcontrollers. Digital controllers offer remarkable compactness, fitting the entire controller onto a single chip, complete with A/D and D/A converters. Furthermore, digital controllers remain immune to component aging and temperature-induced value fluctuations, in contrast to analog components.

We will delve into the application of the Z-transform, which serves as the discrete-time systems counterpart to the Laplace transform. This exploration will encompass the identification of a process’s transfer function. Through a systematic, step-by-step approach, we will demonstrate the practical application of theoretical insights. This will be accomplished by analyzing a Proteus microcontroller-based project, wherein the PWM output is harnessed to regulate the temperature of an oven. The microcontroller boasts a 10-bit A/D converter.

This adaptable procedure can be easily customized with minimal adjustments for controlling various other processes.

Topics Covered:

1. Digital Control-System Block Diagrams.

2. Linear Difference Equations, Z-Transform, Inverse Z-Transform and Discrete Transfer Function.

3. Sampling and A/D Conversion: Analog to Digital Converter.

4. D/A Conversion and ZERO ORDER HOLD  (ZOH) : Relationship between the Continuous Transfer Function and Discrete Transfer Function of a Sampled Process.

5.  Manipulation of Block Diagrams for Sampled Data.

6. Methods for designing Digital Controllers and Ensuring Stability.

7. Microcontroller-Based PID Controller Design.

8. Transfer Function Identification and PID Tuning using the Ziegler–Nichols Method.

9. Practical case of a temperature control system implemented with a microcontroller PIC and simulated with ISIS Proteus: Step by step explanation of how to apply the theoretical knowledge for implementing and simulating a PID controller.

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SPICE-Based Design of PID Controllers.

In this comprehensive article, we delve into the world of industrial control systems through the lens of PID controllers using SPICE simulation. We will embark on a journey to explore the process of designing and simulating various types of PID controllers – including Proportional (P), Proportional-Integral (P.I.), Proportional-Derivative (P.D.), and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (P.I.D.) controllers, leveraging the power of SPICE simulation. The article delves into the theoretical underpinnings and practical methodologies for creating these controllers, emphasizing their importance in optimizing diverse industrial processes. Additionally, we’ll take a closer look at the subsequent implementation of these controllers, achieved using operational amplifiers. Whether you’re an engineer, a researcher, or a technology enthusiast, this article offers valuable insights into the dynamic world of PID control and its application within industrial contexts.

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